jkpoh; kdpj chpik ikak;

Tamil Centre for Human Rights - TCHR/CTDH

,izajsk; : www.tchr.net  kpd;mQ;ry; : tchrgs@tchrgs.net / tchrdip@tchr.net

(Est. 1990)

(If;fpa ehLfs rigapd; 'jfty; rKjha cyf cr;rp khfhehl;Lf;F"

I. eh. tpd; cj;jpNahfG+h;t me;j];ij ngw;w mikg;G)

 

,y. : FG022/PR/2008                                                                         31 [dthp 2008

 

,yq;if jPtpy; - Kwptile;j Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfSk>;

jd;dpl;irahf iftplg;gl;l xg;ge;jq;fSk;

 

rpwpyq;fh fw;fhyj;ijAk;> fhl;Lkpuz;bj;ijAk; Nehf;fp efh;fpwJ

 

'jilfSk; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfSk; gpuNahrdkhw;wjhfTk;> Gj;jprhypj;jdkw;wjhfTk; ,Uf;fkhy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lkhdhy;> ePq;fs; Ngr;Rthh;ij elj;jp Xh; jPh;itf; fhzf;$bath;fs;> jkJ thf;FWjpfis kjpg;gth;fshf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;". - f];gh; Ntapd;];Ngf;> mnkhpf;fhtpd; ghJfhg;Gr; nrayhshh;> 21 [dthp 1981 - 23 etkh;gh; 1987.

 

fw;fhy cyfpypUe;Jk;> fhl;Lkpuz;bj;jdj;jpypUe;Jk; ehfhPfk; mile;j kdpj ,dk;> NtWgl;l ,dq;fs;> kjq;fs;> fhyhr;rhuj;ij nfhz;l kf;fs; - rkhjhdkhfTk; epk;kjpahfTk; tho;tjw;fhf Ngr;Rthh;j;ij> Xg;ge;jq;fs; Nghd;w ehfhPfkhd Kiwfis ifahsj; njhlq;fpdh;. Jh;mjp\;ltrkhf> rpwpyq;fh fhw;fhyj;ij gpd; Nehf;fp js;sg;gl;L - Ngr;Rthh;j;ij> Xg;gj;jq;fs; Nghd;wtw;Wf;F Kd;Dhpik nfhlhJ> ,uhZt jPh;tpDlhf Xh; KO mstpydh Aj;jj;jpw;F Kd;Dhpik nfhLj;Js;sJ. mjhtJ> Raeyk; nfhz;l murpay; jiyth;fspd; Nehf;fq;fSf;F> khw;W fUj;J nfhz;Ls;sth;fis ,uNthL ,uthf mopg;gijNa Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhshf nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. ehfhPfkile;j ,e;j cyfkhdJ> rpwpyq;fhtpd; ,e;j Nghf;fpw;fhd cz;ikfs>; epahaq;fis Muha Ntz;ba Xh; flikghl;il epl;rak;  nfhz;Ls;sJ.

 

cyfikg;Gfs;> gpuhe;jpa rh;t-mur mikg;Gfspy; Ntiy nra;Ak; gy Kf;fpa Gs;spfs;> Xh; ehl;bd; kdpj chpik kPwy;fs; gw;wp ciuahlNth> fUj;J $wNth ed;whf jFjp ngw;Ws;shh;fs;. Mdhy; Xh; ehl;bd; rhpj;jpuk;> murpay; mZFKiw vd;gtw;wpy>; kpfTk; FWfpa mwpit nfhz;lth;fshfNt fhzg;gLfpwhh;fs;;. 2006k; Mz;L Xf;nlhgh; khjk;> jkpoh; chpik ikaj;jpd; nraw;ghl;lhsh;fs;> INuhg;ghtpy; Xh; gpuhe;jpa rh;t-mur mikg;gpd; Kf;fpa Gs;sp xUtUd;  Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l re;jpg;ig> ,jw;F ey;y Cjuzkhf nfhs;syhk.; ehk; re;jpg;ig Nkw;nfhz;l ngz;kzp;> ,t; mikg;gpd; 'KbT vLf;Fk;" mjpfhuj;ij nfhz;ltuhth;. ,tUld; ehk; ciuahLk; nghOJ> ,g; ngz;kzp;; vkf;F $wpajhtJ> ',d neUf;fbf;F xUkpj;J jPh;T fhZk; Nehf;Fld;> $ba tpiutpy; rpwpyq;fh Rje;jpu fl;rpAk;> If;fpa Njrpa fl;rpAk;> Xh; cld;gbf;ifapy; ifr;rhj;jplTs;shdh;. ,J ifr;rhj;jhdTld;  jkpoUila ,dg; gpur;ridf;F> muR kpf Rygkhf jPh;T fz;L tpLnkd;whh;". ,t;Ntisapy;> ehk; ',itahTk; rh;tNjr r%jhaj;jpw;fhd fz;Jilg;Gntd $wp> XU jiygl;rkhf Kd;G fPopj;njwpag;gl;l gz;lh-nry;th> ll;yp-nry;th xg;ge;jq;fs; gw;wp vLj;Jf; $wpaJld;> 1997y; rpwpyq;fh Rje;jpu fl;rp> If;fpa Njrpa fl;rp Mfpa ,U jug;gpduhYk; ifr;rhj;jplg;gl;L iftplg;gl;l> 'ypNahd; Nghf;] cld;gbf;if" gw;wpAk; vLj;J $wpNdhk;. mg;nghOJ ,e;j egh;> ,njd;d 'ypNahd; Nghf;]; cld;gbf;if" nad;w GJf;fij vd vk;kplk; tpdtpdhh;. mg;nghOJ ehk; 'ypNahd; Nghf;]; cld;gbf;if" gw;wp ,e;j egUf;F tpsf;fk; nfhLj;jJk;> jhd; ,g;gb XU cld;gbf;if gw;wp Kd;G mwpe;jpUf;fNt ,y;iy vd xg;G nfhz;lhh;. mNjNtis ,e;j eghplk>; ehk; M&lk; $wpa rpwpyq;fh Rje;jpu fl;rp- If;fpa Njrpa fl;rpapd; 2006 Xf;nlhgh; cld;gbf;if> ehk; $wpaJ Nghy;> 2007 [dthpAld; KbTw;wJ.

 

,yq;if jPtpd; rhpj;jpuj;ij ed;F njhpe;jth;fs;> rpq;fsj; jiyth;fSf;Fk; jkpo; jiyth;fSf;Fj; ,ilapyhdh Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfs;> nlhd%h; Mizf;FOtpd; rpghhpRfs; 1927k; Mz;L ntspahdjpypUe;J ,d;Wtiu Kbtpy;yhJ> ,Ogl;Lf; nfhz;LNghfpwJ vd;gij Xg;Gf;nfhs;thh;fs;.

 

midj;J fl;rpf; FOtpdhpd; jPh;Tj; jpl;lk;

 

fle;j 23k; jpfjp [djpgjpf;F rkh;gpf;fg;;gl;Ls;s> midj;J fl;rpf; FOtpdhpd; jPh;Tj; jpl;lkhdJ> Xh; njspthd murpay; jPh;tw;W rh;tNjr rKjhaj;ij Vkhw;Wtjw;fh cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. Kjyhtjhf> 1987k; Mz;L 13k; tJ jpUj;j rl;lj;ij KOikahf vjph;j;jth; jhd; ,e;j [djpgjp uh[gf;rh Mthh;. Mifahy; ,tNu ,e;j jpUj;j rl;lj;ij eilKiwg;gLj;jp;> jkpo; kf;fSf;F chpik toq;fg;Nghfpwhh; vd;gJ gfw; fdT. ,uz;ltjhf> ,J Xh; midj;Jf;fl;rpfspd; khfhehL vd Fwpg;gplg;;gl;l nghOJk>; ,t; MNyhridf; $l;lq;fspYk; fye;Jiuahly;fspYk; K];yPk; fhq;fpu]; jtph;e;j Vida vjph;fl;rpfs; fye;J nfhs;stpy;iy. %d;wtjhf> tlf;F fpof;fpy;> ,Ugj;J ,uz;L ghuSkd;w cWg;gpdh;fspy;> ,Ugj;J xU ghuSkd;w cWg;gpdh;fis nfhz;l jkpo; Njrpa $l;likg;gpdh; ,t; midj;J fl;rp; khfhehl;Lf;F miof;fg;glTk; ,y;iy> ,jpy; $l;likg;gpdh; gq;F nfhs;sTk; ,y;iy- ,NjNtis jw;Nghija jPh;T jpl;lj;ij $l;likg;gpdh; Vw;fTk; ,y;iy.  ehd;fhtjhf cyFf;F nghpjhf rpwpyq;fh murpdhy>; jw;nghOJ $wg;gl;L; tUk; ,t; jPh;T jpl;lk;> ghuSkd;wj;jpy; epiwNtw;wg;gLtjw;F> %d;wpnyhU guhSkd;w ngUk;ghd;ik Njit vd;gijAk>; ,t; ngUk;ghd;ik jw;Nghija muRf;F ,y;iynad;gijAk>; rpwpyq;fh muR rh;tNjr r%jhaj;jpw;F kiwj;J tUfpd;wdh;. Ie;jtjhf> rhpahf ,Ugj;J XU tUlq;fSf;F Kd;dh;> jkpo; kf;fspdhy; epuhfhpf;fg;gl;l 13tJ jpUj;jr; rl;l %yk; nfhz;L tug;gl;l murpay; jPh;it> ,g;nghOJ Kd;idaij tpl kpfTk; mjpfhuk; Fiwe;j jPh;it> jkpo; kf;fs; Vw;ghh;fnsd;gJ eil Kiwf;F rhj;tPfk; mw;w xU tplakhFk;. Mwhtjhf> jkpo; kf;spd; Vf gpujpepjpfshdh> jkpopo tpLjiyg; Gypfis Xuk; fl;btpl;L> ve;j rpq;fs murpdhYk; ve;j jPh;itAk; jkpo; kf;fSf;F jpzpf;f Kay;tJ> fy;ypy; ehh; chpg;gjw;F rkkhdJ. cz;ikia $Wtjdhy;> Xh; ,uhZt ntw;wpia jhk; milAk; tiu> rh;tNjr r%jhaj;jpd; ftdj;ij jpir jpUg;G Nehf;FlNdNa> ,t; jPh;T jpl;lk; rpwpyq;fhtpd; [djpgjp uh[gf;rhtpdhy; cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gJ ,q;F njspthfpwJ.

 

Kwptile;j Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfSk;> jd;dpl;irahf iftplg;gl;l xg;ge;jq;fSk;

 

'rpwpyq;fh Aj;jj;jpy;> cz;ik| jhd; Kjyhtjhf ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. fhuzk; rpwpyq;fh murplk; cs;s rfy tsq;fis nfhz;L> ngha; gpur;rhuj;jpy; murhq;fk; <LgLk; nghOJ> jkpopoh tpLjiy Nghuspfshy;> ,jw;F epfuhf epw;f Kbahky; cs;sJ" vd mnkhpf;fhtpypUe;J murpay; Ma;T nra;Ak; ehNlhb| vd;gth; $Wfpwhh;.

 

rpwpyq;fhtpy; [dehafj;jpd; ngauhy;> jopo; kf;fspd; epahag+h;tkhd murpay; mgpyhirfis jPh;gjw;nfd eilngw;w rpy Kf;fpa Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfisAk;> mtw;wpd; tpisTfisAk; ,q;F jUfpNwhk;.

 

1927-1931 Mz;L gFjpapy;> Nrh; nghd;dk;gyk; ,uhkhehjd; mth;fSf;Fk;> rpq;fsj; jiyth;fSf;F kpilapy; nlhd%h; Mizf;FOtpd; rpghhpRfis njhlh;e;J Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfs; eilngw;wdh. Mdhy; ,g; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijapdhy; jkpo; kf;fSf;F vJ tpjkhd chpikfSk; fpilf;f ngwtpy;iy.

 

1957y;> jkpohuR fl;rp jiyth; jpU v]; N[ tp nry;tehafj;jpw;Fk;> mg;Nghija gpujkh; jpU v]; lgps;A+ Mh; b gz;lhuehaf;fhTf;Fk; ,ilapy; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfs; eilngw;W> gz;lh-nry;th Xg;ge;jk; cUthfpahJ. ,Nj Nghy; 1965y; jpU v]; N[ tp nry;tehafj;jpw;Fk; mg;Nghija gpujkh; jpU ll;yp Nrdehaf;fhTf;Fk; ,ilapy; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfs; eilngw;W> ll;yp-nry;th Xg;ge;jk; cUthfpahJ. Mdhy; Jh;mjp\;ltrkhf ,t; ,U xg;ge;jq;fSk;> rpq;fs jiyth;fspdhy; XU jiyg;gr;rkhf fPopj;njwpag;gl;ld.

 

1971k; Mz;L> rpwpyq;fh murhq;fj;jpdhy; 'FbahuRf;fhd" murpay; ahg;G jhahhpf;fg;gl;l Ntisapy;> gy Rw;Wg; Ngr;R thh;j;ijfs;> jopo; If;fpa tpLjiy $l;lzpapd; ghuSkd;w cWg;gpdUf;Fk;> mg;Nghija gpujkh;> jpUkjp rpwpkhNth gz;lhuehaf;fTf;Fk; ,ilapy; eilngw;wdh. Mdhy; jkpo;  kf;fSf;F ve;jtpj mbg;gil chpikfisAk;> rpwpyq;fhtpd; Nghpdthj muRfs;> ve;j fl;lj;jpYk; nfhLf;f Kd;tuhJ vd;gJ ,q;F njspthfpaJ. 1972k; Mz;L> 'FbahuRf;fhd murpay; ahg;G"> jopoh; If;fpa tpLjiy $l;lzpapia Nrh;e;j ghuSkd;w cWg;gpdhpd; MjuTk; ,d;wp epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ.

 

jkpo; kf;fs; jkJ murpay; chpikfis ntd;nwLg;gjw;fhf ,Ugj;ije;J tUlfhykhf Nkw;nfhz;l rhj;tPf Nghuhl;lq;fSk; - ghuSkd;wj;jpy; jkpo; cWg;gpdh;fspdhy; Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;l mZFKiwfSk;;> rpq;fs muRfspdhy; ,uhZt td;Kiw %yk; eRf;fg;gl;l fhuzj;jpdhYk;;;> 1972k; Mz;L jkpo; khzt khztpfspd; gy;fiyf;fof gpuNtrj;ij Fiwf;Fk; Nehf;Fld;> rl;l hPjpahf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l jug;gLj;jiy njhlh;e;J> jkpo; ,isQhh;fs;; jkJ chpikfis ntd;nwLg;gjw;fhf MAjk; Ve;jpg; NghuhlNtz;ba epiyf;F js;sg;gl;ldh;.

 

1977k; Mz;L nghJj; Njh;jypy;> tlf;F fpof;fpy; Nghl;bapl;l jopo; If;fpa tpLjiy $l;lzpapdh;> jkJ Njh;jy; tpQ;Qhgdj;jpy>; 'jkpoPoh" Nfhhpf;ifia Kd; itj;jnghOJ - tlf;F fpof;F tho; kf;fspy; 95 tPjkhNdhh>; 'jkpoPoh" Nfhhpf;iff;F Mjuthf thf;fspj;jpUe;jdh;. jkpoPpoj;jpw;F> tlf;F fpof;F tho; kf;fshy; nfhLf;fg;gl;l ,e;j [dehaf Mizia> ,d;Wtiu rpwpyq;fh muRk;> rh;tNjr r%jhaKk;> myl;rpak; nra;J tUfpwJ vd;gJ ,q;F Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

 

1977 - 1982k; Mz;Ltiu> gy Rw;Wg; Ngr;R thh;j;ijfs;> jopo; If;fpa tpLjiy $l;lzpapd; ghuSkd;w cWg;gpdUf;fk;> mg;Nghija gpujkUk; gpd;dh; [djpgjpAkhd N[. Mh;. n[ath;j;jhdTf;Fk; ,ilapy; gy jlitfs; eilngw;wdh. 1983k; Mz;L ,lk; ngw;w kpf Nkhrkhd ,df;fytuj;ij aLj;J> tlf;F fpof;fpy; ,uhZt mlf;F Kiwia vjph;j;J> MAjg; Nghuhl;lk; Muk;gkhfpaJ.

 

,t;Ntisapy; [djpgjp N[. Mh;. n[ath;j;jhdtpdhy;> rpwpyq;fhtpd; ahg;gpy>; 6tJ jpUj;jr; rl;lij 1983k; Mz;L Mf];l; khjk; 8k; jpfjp m%y;gLj;jp> jkpo; kf;fspd; epahag+h;tkhd Raeph;zaf; Nfhhpf;ifia> rpwpyq;fh muR rl;lhPjpahf jil nra;jJ. ,t; jpUj;j rl;lj;jpd; %yk;> 1977k; Mz;L tlf;F fpof;F tho; kf;fshy; nfhLf;fg;gl;l jkpoPohj;jpw;fhd [dehafh MizAk; tYtpoe;jJ.

 

1985k; Mz;L> may; ehlhd ,e;jpahtpd; mDrhuidAld;> G+l;lhdpd; jiyehfuhd jpk;Gtpy;> jkpo; murpay; nraw;ghl;lhsuhf;Fk>; rpwpyq;fhTf;Fk; ,ilapy; ,uz;L Rw;Wtl;l Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfs; A+iy Mf];l; khjq;fspy; eilngw;wd. ,jpy; jkpopo tpLjiyg; GypfSk; fye;J nfhz;ldh;.

 

,t; jpk;G Ngr;Rthh;j;ijapd; nghOJ> jkpo; murpay; fl;rpfSk;> jkpo; nraw;ghl;lhsh;fSk; xd;W ,ize;J> rpwpyq;fh muRldhd Ngr;Rthh;j;ijf;F> jkpo; kf;fspd; murpay; mgpyhi\fis cs;slf;fpa Xh; rhrdj;ij jahhpj;jdh;. ,jd; mbg;gilapy;> jkpo; kf;fspd; - jahfk;> Njrpak;> Raeph;zak; Mfpatw;Wld;> rpwpyq;fhtpy; jkpo; kf;fs; ahtUk; FbAhpikf;Fk;> rfy mbg;gil chpikfSf;Fk; chpikAilath;fs; vd;w Nfhhpf;if Kd;itf;fg;gl;lJ. ,t; jpk;G jPh;khdj;ij rpwpyq;fh muR Vw;f kWj;jjpdhy;> Ngr;R thh;j;ij jpBnud Kwptile;jJ.

 

1986k; Mz;L etk;gh; khjk;> ,e;jpahtpd; gpujkhpd; mDrhuizapy;> jkpopog; Gypfspd; jiyth; Nt gpughfuDld;> murpay; MNyhrfh; kiwe;j jpU md;ud; ghyrpq;fKk; ,ize;J> rpwpyq;fhtpd; [djpgjp N[. Mh;. n[ath;j;jhdTld; ,e;jpahtpy; ngq;fhYhpy; Ngr;R thh;j;ij elj;jpdh;. ,t; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijapy;> [djpgjp n[ath;j;jhd> jkpo; kf;fspd; jhahfk;> Raeph;zak; Mfpa ,uz;ilAk; Vw;f jtwpa fhuzj;jpdhy;> ,t; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijAk; toik Nghy; Kwptile;jJ.

 

1987k; Mz;L A+iy 27k; jpfjp> jkpo; kf;fspd; murpay; gpur;ridia jPh;gjhf $wp> ,e;jpahTf;Fk; rpwpyq;fhTf;Fk; ,ilapy; Xh; xg;ge;jk; ifr;rhj;jdJ. jkpo; kf;fspd; murpay; gpur;ridia jPh;gjw;F cUthdjhf $wg;gl;l ,t; xg;ge;jk;> tlf;F fpof;F tho; jkpo; kf;fisNah> jkpopog; GypfspDlNdNah ve;jtpj MNyhridAk; Nkw;nfhs;shJ> ifr;rhj;jhdJ vd;gJ ,q;F $wpg;gplj;jf;fJ. rpq;fs ,dthjf; fl;rpahd N[.tp.gp.> ,t; xg;ge;jj;ij vjph;j;J njw;fpy; mur jdpahh; Nghf;Ftuj;jJ thfdq;fisAk;> fl;blq;fisAk; mbj;J cilj;J jPapl;L ehrkhf;fpdh;.

 

,t; ,e;jpah-rpwpyq;fh xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> rpwpyq;fh [djpgjpapd; tpNr\l xj;jhirapdhy;;> 1987k; Mz;L nrg;lk;gh; khjk; 8k; jpfjp> tlf;F fpof;F khfzq;fs; Xd;wpizf;fg;gl;ld. Mdhy; 18 tUlq;fspd; gpd;dh;> tlf;F fpof;F khfhzq;fspd; ,izg;ig vjph;j;J> N[.tp.gpapdh; rpwpyq;fhtpd; cah; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; Xh; tof;if jhf;fy; nra;jdh;. 2006k; Mz;L Xf;nlhgh; 16k; jpfjp>; cah; ePjpkd;wk>; xU jiyg;gl;rkhf murpaiy mbg;gilahf nfhz;L> [djpgjpapdhy; tlf;F fpof;F khfzq;fs; Xd;wpidf;fg;gl;lJ nry;YgbahfhJntd> 1987k; Mz;L nrg;lk;gh; khjk; jPh;gspj;jJ.

 

1989k; Mz;L> rpwpyq;fhtpd; [djpgjp Njh;jypy; ntw;wp ngw;w [djpgjp gpukjhrh> jkpopog; tpLjiy Gypfis Ngr;Rthhj;ijf;F mioj;jpUe;jhh;. Ngr;Rthh;ijapd; NghJ> jkpopog; Gypfspdhy; Xh; murpay; fl;rp> 'tpLjiy Gypfspd; kf;fs; Kd;zzp" vd cUthf;fg;gl;L> rpwpyq;fhtpd; Njh;jy Mizahshpd; fPo;> ,J murpay; fl;rpahf gjpthfpaJ. ,jidaLj;J> jkpopog; tpLjiy GypfSk;> jkpo; kf;fspilNa jkf;Fs;s Mjuit ntspfhl;Lk; Nehf;Fld;> fLikahd gpur;rhu Ntiyfspy; <Lgl;lJld;> Mf];l; 12k; jpfjp nfhOk;gpy; ,Ugj;jhW murpay; fl;rpfs; $b elhj;jpah rh;tfl;rp khfhehl;by>; ghh;itahshuhf fye;J nfhz;ldh;. ,t;Ntisapy;> jkpo; kf;fspilNa jkpopog; tpLjiy GypfSf;F cs;s Mjuit ntspAyFf;F fhl;;l tpUk;ghj rpwpyq;fh muR - <og;Nghh; ,uz;il Muk;gpj;jJld;> mt;Ntisapy; ,t; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfs;> %d;whk;; jug;gpdhpd; mDrhuid ,y;yhJ eilngw;w fhuzj;jpdhy;> rpwpyq;fh muR Nghh; Muk;gpj;j fhuzj;ij> jkpopo tpLjiy Gypfs; kPJ> kpf ,yFthf Rkj;jpdh;.

 

1994k; Mz;L> nghJ Njh;jypy; ntw;wp ngw;w gpukh; re;jphpf;fh FkhuJq;fhTf;Fk; jkpopog; tpLjiy GypfSk; ,ilapy; Ngr;Rthh;j;ij Muk;ghkhfpaJ. gpukh; re;jphpf;fh FkhuJq;fh etk;gh; khjk; eilngw;w [djpgjp Njh;jypy; ntw;wp ngw;W rpwpyq;fhtpd; [djpgjpahdij njhlh;e;J> jkpopog; tpLjiy Gypfspd; jiyth>; jpU Nt gpughfuDf;Fk;> [djpgjp re;jphpf;fh FkhuJq;fhTf;Fk; ,ilapy;> Xh; Nghh; epWj;j cld;gbf;if 1995k; Mz;L [dthp khjk; 5k; jpfjp ifr;rhj;jhfpaJ. ,NjNtisapy; gy tUlq;fshf jkpo; gpuNjrq;fSf;F tpNrlkhf aho;g;ghz Flh ehl;by; eilKiwapy; ,Ue;J te;j nghUshjuh jilia ePf;Ftjhf> re;jphpf;fh muR thf;FWjp nfhLj;jpUe;jh NghjpYk;> jilia ePf;fhJ> Nghiu Muk;gpf;Fk; Nehf;Fld;> fhyk; flj;jp te;j Ntisapy;> jkpopog; tpLjiy Gypfs;> Nghh; epWj;j cld;gbf;ifapy; $wg;gl;lJ Nghy;> khh;r; khjk; ,U fpoik mtfhrj;ij rpwpyq;fh muRf;F nfhLj;jpUe;jdh;. ,jw;F xU gjpYk; fpilahj fhuzj;jpdhy;> jkpopog; tpLjiy Gypfs; ,t; mtfhrj;ij> ,d;Dk; %d;W thuj;jpdhy; Vg;uy; 19k; jpfjp tiy ePbj;jdh;. ,Wjpapy; Vg;uy; 19k; jpfjp> <og;Nghh; %d;W Muk;gpj;jJ. Nghh; njhlq;fpaJk;> nghUshjhu jil vd;W xd;W> jkpo; gpuNjrq;fspy; eilKiwapy; ,y;iynad re;jphpf;fh muR> rh;tNjr r%jaj;jpw;F $wpaJ.

 

%d;whk; jug;G mDrhuidAld; Ngr;R thh;j;ijf;F> Gypfs; typAWj;jpdh;

 

,t; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfs; ahTk; %d;whk;; jug;gpdUila mDrhuidAk; ,y;yhJ eilngw;w fhuzj;jpdhy;> NtWgl;l rpwpyq;fh muR xt;nthU jlitAk; Nghh; Muk;gkhd Ntisapy;> ,jw;fhd gopia jkpopog; tpLjiy Gypfs; kPJ Rkj;jpa fhuzj;jpdhy;> vjph;fhyq;fspy; rfy Ngr;R thh;j;ijfSk;> %d;whk; jug;G mDrhuid> fz;fzpg;GlNdNa eilngw Ntz;Lnkd jkpopo tpLjiyg; Gypfs; typAWj;jpdh;.

 

,e;j mbg;gilapy;> 2002k; Mz;L ngg;uthp khjk; 21k; jpfjp> Nehh;Nt murhq;fj;jpd; mDrhuidAld; jkpopo tpLjiyg; GypfSf;Fk;> rpwpyq;fh muRf;Fk; ,ilapy; Xh; Nghh; epWj;j xg;ge;jk;  ifr;rhj;jhfpaJld; -  jha;yhe;J> Nehh;Nt> n[h;kdp> [g;ghd;> Rtp];yhe;J Nghd;w ehLfspy;> gy Rw;Wg; Ngr;R thh;j;ijfSk; eilngw;wdh.

 

Nehh;Nt murhq;fj;jpd; mDrhuidAlDk;> Nehl;bf; (Nkw;F) ehLfspd; fz;fzpg;Gld; eilKiwf;F te;j ,t; xg;ge;je;jpd; rhuq;fisAk;> gy Rw;Wg; Ngr;R thh;j;ijapd; KbTfisAk; rpwpyq;fh muR eilKiwg;gLj;jhJ> rhl;Lg; Nghf;F nrhy;yp flj;jp te;jJ. rpwpyq;fh ,uhZtKk;> rpy tp\kj;jdkhd ,ilAWfisAk; Vw;gLj;jpdh.

 

rpwpyq;fh muR xg;ge;je;jpd; gy rhuq;fis eilKiwg;gLj;jhJ fhyk; flj;jpa NtisapYk;> jkpopo tpLjiyg; Gypfs;> jhk; Xh; nghWg;G tha;e;j eph;thfj;ij jkJ eph;thfg; gpuNjrj;jpy;; elj;Jfpd;w fhuzj;jpdhy;> Nehh;Ntapd; mDrhuidAld; ifr;rhj;jhfpa xg;ge;je;ij> njhlh;e;J NgZk; Nehf;Fld;> Xh; ,ilfhy jPh;T jpl;lj;ij rpwpyq;fh murplk;> mDrhuizahsuhd Nehh;Nt %yk;> 2003k; Mz;L etk;gh; khjk; ifaspj;jdh;. Mdhy; mg;nghOJ gjtpapypUe;j rpwpyq;fh [djpgjp>; ,t; ,ilfhy jPh;it myl;rpak; gz;zpaJ kl;Lky;yhJ> jkpopo tpLjiyg; GypfSld; Nghh; epWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpy; ifnaOj;jpl;l murhq;fj;ijAk; gjtp ePf;fk; nra;jhh;. ,j;Jld;> ,ilfhy jPh;T jpl;lk; Kbtile;jJ kl;Lky;yhJ> njhlh;e;J gjtpf;F te;j murhq;fk;> jkpopo tpLjiyg; GypfSld; Ngr;R thh;j;ij elj;j Kd;tutpy;iy.

 

Nghh;fhyj;ij tpl> Nghh; epWj;j xg;ge;jk; eilKiwapy; cs;s fhyj;jpy; jhd; $Ljyhd Ml;flj;jy;fs;> gLnfhiyfs;> gypay; td;Kiwfs;> ,lg; ngah;Tfs; eilngw;wJ. tpNrlkhf jkpo; fy;tpkhd;fs;> Gj;jpaPtpfs;> Clftpayhsh;fs;> ghuSkd;w CWg;gpdh;fs;> rkaf; FUkhh;fs; Nghd;Nwhh; nfhy;yg;gl;ldhh;.

 

,t; Ntisapy; Rzhkp Nguhiy kpfTk; Nkhrkhd Kiwapy;> tlf;F fpof;F khfhzq;fis ghjpj;jJ NghJ> ,jd; Gdh; eph;khz Ntiyfis> tlf;F fpof;fpy; Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhf> rpwpyq;fh murpw;Fk; jkpopo tpLjiyg; GypfSf;Fkpilapy; Xh; xg;ge;jk; ifr;rhj;jhfpaJ. Mdhy; N[. tp. Gp apdh; ,t; Xg;ge;jj;ij vjph;j;J tof;F jhf;fy; nra;j nghOJ> cah; ePjpkd;wj;jpdhy; ,t; xg;ge;jk; nry;YgbahfJ vd xU gl;rkhd murpay; jPh;g;gpiz toq;fpaJ.

 

,t;Ntisapy>; njhlh;r;rpahd rh;tNjr mOj;jq;fs; fhuzkhf> [djpgjp uh[gf;rh murhq;fk;> jkpopo tpLjiyg; GypfSld; n[dpthtpy; Ngr;Rthh;j;ij elj;j Kd; te;J> 2006 Mz;L ngg;uthp khjk; Ngr;Rthh;ijAk; eilngw;wJ. ,t; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijapd; NghJ> rpwpyq;fh muR Nghh; epWj;j xg;ge;je;jpy; $wpAs;sJ Nghy;> rpwpyq;fh muRld; ,ize;J nraw;gLk; xl;Lf; FOtpdhpd; MAjq;fis fistjw;Fk; xg;Gf; nfhz;lJ. Mdhy; ,t; thf;FWjpia rpwpyq;fh muR eilKiwg;gLj;j jtwpa fhuzj;jpdhy;> 2006k; Mz;L xf;Nlhgh; khjk; n[dpthtpy; eilngw;w ,uz;lhtJ Rw;W Ngr;Rthh;j;ij Njhy;tpapy; Kbtile;jJ.

 

,NjNtis - rpwpyq;fhtpy; gLnfhiyfs;> Ml;flj;jy;fs;> ,lg; ngah;Tfs; Nghd;wit mjpfhpj;j fhuzj;jpdhy;> I. eh. rigapd; kdpj chpikr; rigapy>; rpwpyq;fh kPJ Xh; fz;ld jPh;khdj;ij epiwNtw;Wtjw;F INuhg;gpah A+dpad; ehLfs; Kd; te;jd. ,j; jPhkhdk; ,d;Wk; I. eh. kdpj chpikr; rigapy; tpthjj;jpw;fhf fhj;jpUf;fpwJ.

 

jkpo; kf;fs; vjph;ghh;j;jJ Nghy;> rpwpyq;fh xg;ge;jjpypUe; ntspNawpaJ

 

I. eh.  kdpj chpikr; rigapy;> rpwpyq;fh kPJ fz;ld jPh;khdk; nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ XU Gwk; eilngWk; nghOJ> kWGwk; rpwpyq;fh muRld; $l;lzp nfhz;l rpq;fs ,dthj fl;rpfshd - N[. tp. gp> N[. vr;. A> Mfpatw;Wld; v];. N[. v]; Ak; ,ize;J> 2002k; Mz;L jkpopo tpLjiyg; GypfSf;Fk;> rpwpyq;fh muRf;Fk; ,ilapy; ifr;rhj;jhd Nghh; epWj;j xg;ge;jk;> rpwpyq;fhtpd; murpay; ahg;Gf;F vjpuhdnjd ePjp kd;wj;jpy; tof;F jhf;fy; nra;jdh;. ,t;tof;F ePjpkd;wj;jpdhy;> 2007k; Mz;L khh;r; 6k; jpfjp epuhfhpf;fg;gl;l nghOJ> ,th;fs; ,j; jPHg;ig vjph;j;J cah; ePjpkd;wj;jpw;F kDr; nra;Js;sdh;. cah; ePjpkd;wk;> vjph;tUk; khh;r; khjk; 10k; jpfjp> ,t;tof;if tprhhpf;ftpUg;jhf mwptpj;Js;sdh;.

 

,t; ehlfq;fis gjtpapy; cs;s rpwpyq;fh murhq;fj;pd; gpd;zdpapy;;> rpq;fs ngsj;jthjpfspdhy; NkilNaw;Wfpd;wdh; vd;gij> rh;tNjr r%jhak; mwpe;jpUf;Fkh vd;gJ vkf;F re;Njfk;.  

 

jkpo; kf;fs; ePz;l fhykhf vjph;ghh;j;jJ Nghy;> fle;j 3k; jpfjp> rpwpyq;fhtpd; ntspehl;likr;rh; Nwhfpj;j Nghyhfkhtpdhy;> cj;jpNahfg+h;tkhf Nehh;Ntapd; JhJthplk;> 2002k; Mz;L ifr;rhj;jhd Nghh; epWj;j xg;ge;je;jjpypUe;J> rpwpyq;fh tpyFtjhf mwptpj;Js;shh;. Rpwpyq;fh muR jk;Kld; $l;L Nrh;e;j ,dthj fl;rpfshd N[. tp. gp> N[. vr;. A Mfpatw;iw jpUg;jpg;gLj;jp> ghuSkd;wj;jpy; ngUk;ghd;ikia filgpbf;Fk; Nehf;Fld;>; rh;tNjr mDrhuizAld; ifr;rhj;jhfpa  Nghh; epWj;j xg;ge;je;ij gypf;flh Mf;fpAs;sdh;. mj;Jld; jkpo; kf;fspd; chpikg; Nghuhl;lj;jpw;F> ,uhZtj; jPh;Nt fhzg;gLnkd;gijAk; ntspg;gilahf rh;tNjr r%jhaj;jpw;F mwptpj;Js;sdh;.

 

Rpwpyq;fhtpd; ,t; mwptpj;jiy njhlh;e;J> fle;j 16k; jpfjpAld; cj;jpNahfGh;tkhf Nghh; epWj;j xg;ge;jKk;> Aj;j epWj;j fz;fzpg;Gk; KbTf;F te;Js;sJ.

 

Nghh; epWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpypUe;J tpyFtJnjd Rpwpyq;fh mwptpj;jij njhlh;e;J> If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; nrayhshh;ehafk;> INuhg;gpa A+dpaDk; NtW rpy ehLfSk; kpf mjph;r;rp nfhz;Ls;sjhf nra;jpfs; $Wfpd;wdh. ,NjNtis> rpwpyq;fhtpdhy; $wg;gl;l ngha;fs; ahtw;iwAk; ek;gp> ngUkhstpyhd MAjq;fis toq;fpAk;> rpwpyq;fhtpdhy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; Nkhrkhd kdpj chpik kPwy;fis fz;Lk; fhzjJ Nghy; ebj;j rpy ehLfs;> Rpwpyq;fhtpd; ,t;twptpj;jiy fz;L> kpfTk; Mr;rhpag;gl;Ls;sjhfTk;; mwpag;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; jkpo; kf;fs;> rpq;fs ngsj;j ,dthjj;jpd; ,g; Nghf;if> Vw;fdNt vjph;ghh;j;;jJ kl;Lky;yhJ> ,J rh;tNjrj;jpd; rhl;rpaq;fspd; Kd;dhy; eilngw;wjhy;> fle;j MWgJ tUlq;fshf> NtWgl;l rpq;fs muRfspdhy; jkpo; kf;fs; Vkhw;wg;gl;L te;jij> ,g;nghOJ rh;tNjrk; czh;tjw;F ey;y re;jh;g;gk; cUthfpAs;sjhf fUJfpd;wdh;;.

 

 [dehafk;> ,iwahikapd; ngauhy; jkpo; kf;fspd; chpik kWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ

 

ehl;bd; [dehafk;> ,iwahikapd; ngauhy;> jkpo; kf;fspd; murpay; mgpyhi\fis> rpwpyq;fhtpd; Ml;rpahsh;fs; kpf ePz;lfhykhf kWj;J te;jtw;wpy; rpy Kf;fpakhd rk;gtq;fis ,q;F jUfpNwhk; :

 

(1)      ,yq;if jPtpd; Rje;jpuj;ij njhlh;e;J> cUthf;fg;gl;l Njrpaf; nfhbapy>; rpq;fs ,dj;ijAk; ngsj;j rkaj;ijAk; gpujpgypf;Fk; - thSldhd rpq;fKk;> ehd;F mur ,iofs; kl;LNk gjpf;fg;gbUe;jd. fLikahd vjph;g;Gf;fis njhlh;e;J> Njhlk;gok; (xNwQ;)> gr;ir epwq;fis nfhz;l ,U ePo; NfhLfs; jkpo;> K];yPk; kf;fis gpujpgyPg;gjw;fhf fhyg;Nghf;fpy; Nrh;f;fg;gl;ldh.

 

(2)      1948k; Mz;L etk;gh; khjk; 15k; jpfjp eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;l FbAhpikr; rl;lk;> 1862k; Mz;lshtptpy; gphpj;jhdpauhy; ngUk;; Njhl;lj; njhopYf;fhf> njd; ,e;jpahtpypUe;J nfhz;Ltug;gl;l XU Nfhb jkpo; kf;fSila FbAhpikiaAk;> thf;FhpikiaAk; ,of;f toptFj;jJ. ,th;fs;> 1947k; Mz.by; eilngw;w nghJj; Njh;jypy>; thf;fspj;jhh;fs; vd;gJ ,q;F Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ,J> jkpo; kf;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ij ghuSkd;wj;jpy; Fiwf;Fk; Nehf;Fld;> rpq;fs Ml;rpahsh;fspdhy; jpl;lkplg;gl;L nra;ag;gl;l rjpahFk;.

 

(3)      fle;j 60 tUlq;fshf> rpq;fs Ml;rpahsh;fspdhy; tlf;F fpof;fpy; jpl;lkpl;L Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l rpq;fs FbNaw;wq;fspdhy;> jkpo; kf;fspd; jhahf g+kpapd; 50 tPjkhd epyg; gug;Gf;fs; gwpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdh. ,J jkpoh;fspd; jhahf g+kpapd; g+tpapaiy khw;Wk; Nehf;Fld; eilngWfpwJ.

 

(4)       1956k; Mz;L jdpr; rpq;fs nkhopr; rl;lk;> jkpo; kf;fSf;F fl;lha nkhopahf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

(5)      NtWgl;l rpq;fs Ml;rpahsh;fspdhYk;> rpq;fs jPtputhjpfspdhYk;> fhilah;fspdhYk; jkpo; kf;fs; kPJ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l Ie;J ,df;fytuq;fs; (1956> 1958> 1977> 1981> 1983) jopo; kf;fspd; r%f nghUsjhu tho;it ehrkhf;fpaJ. ,f; fytuq;fspdhy; Mapuf; fzf;fpy; jkpoh; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;Lk;> ngz;fs; gyPahy; td;Kiwf;Fk; Mshf;fg;gl;ldh;;. mj;Jld; mth;fsJ nrhj;Jf;fs; #iwahlg;gl;Lk;> jPf;fpiuahf;gg;gl;ldh. ,d;Wtiu> ,tw;Wf;F ve;jtpj  tprhuizNah> my;yJ gjpf;fg;gl;NlhUf;F e\;lapNlh toq;fg;gltpy;iy.

 

(6)       1972k; Mz;L fy;tp jiug;gLj;jy;.

 

(7)      1972k; Mz;L eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;l FbauRf;fhd ahg;G> 1947k; Mz;L cUthf;fg;gl;l Nrhy;ghP mikg;G %yk; jkpo; kf;fSf;F eilKiapypUe;j rpW murpay; ghJfhg;igAk; ,y;yhJ nra;jJ.

 

(8)      1978k; Mz;L cUthf;fg;gl;l ahg;G> Gj;j rkak; rpwpyq;fhtpd; mur kjkhfTk;> mur ghJfhg;GFhpa rkakhfTk; Vw;fg;gl;lJ.

 

(9)      1979k; Mz;L A+iy khjk; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;l gaq;futhjr; rl;lKk;> 36 tUlq;fshf rpW rpW ,ilntspfSld; eilKiwapy; ,Ue;JtUk; mtrhufhy gpufldKk;> jkpo; kf;fspd; mbg;gil chpikfis mbNahL kWj;jdh.

 

(10)     1981k; Mz;L A+iy khjk;> njd; Mrpahtpd; ghhpa Ehy; epiyaq;fspy; xd;whd aho; nghJ Ehyhfk;> rpwpyq;fhtpd; ghJfhg;G gilfspdhy; jPf;fpiuahf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jpy; rhpj;jpu> fhyr;rhu Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j gy Mtzq;fs; cl;gl> 95>000 Ehy;fs; vhpj;J erkhf;fg;gl;ld. ,Jtplakhf ,d;Wtiu> rpwpyq;fh muR ve;jtpj tprhuizAk; Nkw;nfhz;L rk;ge;jg;gl;lth;fis ePjpapd; Kd;dhy; epWj;j jtwpAs;sJ.

 

(11)     1988k; Mz;bypUe;J rpwpyq;fh gy jlitfs;> I. eh. rigapd; Ml;fs; fhzky; NghFk; tplaj;ij MuhAk; gphptpduhy;> Ml;fs; fhzky; NghFk; tplaj;jpy; rpwpyq;fh> ,uz;lhtJ ,lj;jpy; cs;sjhf mwptpf;g;gl;lJ.

 

fle;j Mz;L gj;jphpifahsh;fs; fhzky; NghFk; tplaj;jpy;> rpwpyq;fh %d;wtJ ,lj;jpy; cs;sjhfTk; mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ.

 

Rpwpyq;fhtpy; epiyikfs; NkhrkhftpUf;Fk; ,lj;jpy;> rh;tNjr r%jhaj;jpd; mZFKiw> kpfTk; tpag;ghdjhf cs;sJ. mg;ghtpj; jkpo; kf;fs;> rpwpyq;fhtpd; ghJfhg;G gilfspdhy; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gLk; Ntisfspy>; rpyNtisfspy; mikjpahfTk;> ,il ,ilNa rpwpyq;fhtpd; ghJfhg;G gilfisAk; jkpopoh tpLjiyg; GypfisAk; fz;bf;Fk; nkd;ikahd mwpf;iffis ntspapLfpd;wdh;. Mdhy; rpy Mjuk; mw;w gLnfhiyfSf;F> jkpopoh tpLjiyg; Gypfs; re;Njfpf;fg;gLk;  fl;lq;fspy;> kpfTk; fLikahd fz;lzq;fis rh;tNjr r%jhaj;jpdh; ntspapLtJ kl;Lky;yhJ> rpwpyq;fh muir Nghw;wpg; Gfo;tJk; toikahfpAs;sJ.

 

,Jtiuapy; jkpopo kf;fs;> gjpd; %d;W nghJj; Njh;jy;fspYk;> (47> 52> 56> 60 khh;r;> 60 A+iy> 65> 70> 77> 89> 94> 2000> 2001> 2004) Ie;J [djpgjp Njh;jy;fspYk;> (82> 88> 94> 99> 2005); rpq;fs kf;fSld;> rkhjhdkhfTk; mikjpahfTk; thOk; Nehf;Fld; gq;Fgw;wpAs;sdh;. Mdhy;> khWgl;l rpq;fs Ml;rpahsh;fsplkpUe;J> jkpo; kf;fsJ epahag+h;tkhd Nfhhpf;iffSf;F> re;jjp re;jjpahf jkpo; kf;fs; ngw;Wf; nfhz;l gjpy; - mopTk; mtyq;fSk; ml;^opaq;fSNk.

 

ePjp;> rkj;Jtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> fle;j fhyq;fspy; cyfpy; gy Gjpa ehLfs; cUthfpAs;sij ehk; fhzf; $bajhfTs;sJ. ghq;fhsNjrpypUe;J Nfhrth tiu ntspg;gilahf njhpAk; cz;ik vd;dntdpy; - kdpj chpikfis kWj;Jk;> ahjh;j;j epiyfis myl;rpak; nra;Jk;> rhpj;jpuq;fis khw;wpaikf;f Kw;gl;l ehLfspy;;> rh;tNjrk; r%jhaj;jpd; jiyaPl;bd; %yNk> murpay; gpur;ridfs;  jPhf;fg;gl;Ls;sdh.  ,t;thpirapy>; jkpopoh tpLjiy Nghuhl;lk; xU nghOJk; Nfhrthtpd; tpLjiy Nghuhl;lj;jpw;Nfh my;yJ mz;ikf; fhyq;fspy; Gjpjhf cUthd kw;iwa ehLfspd; Nghuhl;lj;jpypUe;Njh NtWgl;ljy;yh. ,e;j mbg;gilapy;>  rh;tNjrhPjpahf Nfhrthtpd; tpLjiyia tuNtw;gth;fs; ahtUk>; jkpopoh tpLjiy Nghuhl;lj;ij Mjhpf;f Ntz;bath; Mfpd;wdh;.

 

Mifahy;> Xh; epahag+h;tkhd jPh;g;ig> ,yq;if jPtpy; thOk; jkpo; kf;fSf;F> rh;tNjrk;  toq;Ftjw;F> rhhpahd re;jh;g;gk; jw;nghONj cUthfpAs;sJ.

 

r. tp. fpUghfud;

nghJr; nrayhsh;

jkpoh; kdpjh; chpikfs; ikak;

gpuhd;];

 

 

 



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